Fig. 2


(a) FD-PRP preparation16. FD-PRP is in powder form and can be dissolved in distilled water to the same concentration of fresh PRP.

(b) Artificial bone is crushed into powder.

(c) FD-PRP is mixed with the powdered artificial bone, followed by activation using thrombin and calcium chloride before use.

(d) Schema of the spine (transplantation site) . The graft material was implanted over the transverse processes of L4-L6.